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托福‌‌‌‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‍‌‌‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‍写作考试经验分享

JosephChou20
2550
9
9月9号浙大二战托福,考完感觉头皮发麻,口语前几题持续懵比,综合写作几乎压着时间写完,独立写作只写到了320词,出来就在想着订下次考试的考场了。没想到托福果真如此玄学,口语23对我来说已经很不错了,写作谜一样的冲到了28。喜出望外退掉下次考试之后冷静下来,我觉得除了运气之外,之前在写作上做的准备也确实挺多的,考前一个月大概完整的训练过6,7篇TPO独立写作,综合写作完整练习和列提纲的次数加起来也有十多次。当然了,训练量是一方面,写的过程以及反复修改的过程中总结的经验也是让我慢慢感觉水平提高的重要原因。

分享一下我在准备写作的过程中记的一些笔记,虽然很多是来自于之前在新东方托福班上教过我的姚建华老师的《托福写作一本通》上的一些内容,不过还是有不少我自己总结的经验,整理这些笔记的思路也是我在做题过程中慢慢想到的,希望能称得上干货吧~



综合写作:

1. 综合写作文章快速看完写出三点,关键是在每一点后面做听力部分的笔记,听力是重点2. 时态在没有特殊要求的时候可以全部用一般现在,保持全篇一致最重要3. 综合写作每一分段内先passage再lecture,最后一段可以先lecture再passage,一方面可以增加diversity,不过主要是确保听力内容不遗漏,如果时间充足,可以全篇都先passage再lecture (2:1)4. 不能照抄阅读内容,概括能力很重要Point out/state/indicate/argue/claim/suggest/holdthe idea/maintain

Doubt/offer alternativeexplanation/challenge/cast doubt about/oppose/refute/contend

It is highly possible/can be/may

独立写作:

独立写作最好按照首段主题句->段落中心句->开头引入->段落论证内容->结尾总结的顺序写,便于考场上理清思路。

1. 观点展开的方法在于例证、解释、细节,关联词非常重要2. 避免使用绝对词(all, none),避免使用模糊名词(thing / people->item, product, commodity, issue, phenomenon,event, idea, consequence, result / students, professionals, scholars, citizens,local residents, each individual),避免使用模糊形容词(good / bad)3. 头脑风暴(1) 拆分名词(people->students, businessmen, old people/information->news,educational information, daily information, entertainment),拆分时间(inearly childhood, in adolescence, in adulthood),拆分地点(at home, inschool, at workplace),拆分成功失败(success, making progress / failure, making mistakes)(2) 个人万能理由(less expensive, save time, efficient, safe / discover one interest,broaden horizon, expand knowledge,develop ability, cooperative, strengthen family relationships, sense ofaccomplishment ),社会万能理由(improved living standards, technological advancement, environmentalprotection, educational opportunities, community services),个人和社会万能理由——先找最贴合主题的个性化理由,再使用“万能理由”扩充4. 谋篇布局(1) 一边倒结构(2) 让步转折结构(题目含有绝对词时,往往第一段让步之后再转折;不含绝对词时,转折可以在前也可以在后。不过观点一定要清晰)(3) 折中结构5. 段落中心句(简洁表达观点,用好词、词组、句型进行修饰)--Always telling the truth is the mostimportant consideration in any relationship between people.

First and foremost, in order to maintain aclose relationship between lovers, it is necessary to tell white lies in someoccasions.



Second, there is much evidence to suggestthat white lies are acceptable between parents and children under some specialcircumstances.



Finally, white lies are helpful in buildingpatient’s confidence when they fight against diseases, especially against somefatal diseases.



--It is better to work in a large companythan in a small one

Admittedly, a small company offers muchwork flexibility and intimate friendship.



However, the benefits of working for asmall company are outweighed by those of working for a large company thatprovides more compensation and social welfare benefits.



Moreover, each individual is able toreceive more training and promotion opportunities when working in a largecompany.

6. 开头段:背景介绍(调查数据,引用名言也可)->引入话题(先提出想法观点再驳斥也可)->主题句(直接归纳分论点或者笼统的说3 reasons, 让步转折结构的文章推荐前一种方法)7. 例证法(1) 例子来源多样,可以是知识也可以是自身经验(2) 例子具体The earth provides human beings with whatwe need, but natural resources are not limited. Stripping mining destroys mostregions and leaves bare and useless ground. Deforestation removes old treesthat cannot be easily replaced. Also, over-fishing may harm fish population tothe extent difficult to recover.

(3) 单例子法(名人、个人经历,详细描述)、多例子法(不须提前准备,只要有侧重的概括就行)、微例子法(air and water pollution caused by industrial wastes, global warming,acid rain, land depletion, rainforest destruction / watching appealing movies,going to parks, having a delicious meal at a first-rate restaurant, taking along journey to appreciate the beauty of nature)(4) 类比法(is like, resemble, is similar to),分类法(Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs Theory, physiological needs, safety needs, esteem needs,self-actualization/the needs to fulfill oneself),数例法(According to arecent study/research/survey conducted by ministry of education of China/HarvardUniversity, …% of the respondents acknowledged that…)8. 因果法:论点->原因->条件->结论9. 对比法:有无对比,今昔对比(In contrast, However, On the contrary, Contradictorily, In comparison)10. 结尾段:采用让步转折结构(it might be true that / there is sufficient evidence to prove that,there is enough evidence to justify my point that, judging from all thesituations mentioned above, we may reach the conclusion that)First/firstly/initially/in the firstplace/first of all/to begin with/to start with

Second/secondly/in the secondplace/besides/furthermore/moreover/in addition/additionally

Third/thirdly/finally/lastly

Primarily/Moreover/Admittedly/On contrast

However/nevertheless/nonetheless/alternatively

A small leak will sink a great ship.

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound ofcure.

Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

Many people, if not most, are strongbelievers in the statement that…

To conclude, in summary, to summarize, tosum up

Basic moral standards

Exacerbate/intensify

Encounter with problem

Regarding to

Be confined to/limited

For instance/For example

There is no debate/denying/doubt that

Take into account of/considering

Artificial intelligence/biomedical nanomaterial/closed circuit television/genetically modified food/magneticallylevitated train/unmanned spacecraft

动词:

Covering varied subjects helps children acquire comprehensive skills to meetthe high demand of the modern world.

The social and historical background ofserious movies provides people with an opportunity to comprehend a vast amount of knowledge.

From time to time, we will inevitably encounter various challenges that wecannot handle by ourselves.

Watching foreign movies provokes students’ interests in foreigncountries and cultures.

形容词:

In my view, being different from otherstends to be a decisive element thatcan ensure a person’s career or academic success.

Such a career offers ample opportunities for one’s future development.

The air pollution is detrimental to plant life and human beings.

Remaining low-profile constitutes a distinguished quality found in asuccessful individual.

It is difficult for people to visualize theformidable pains that athletes haveendured in their daily training.

Most working class faces unprecedented workplace challenges andcompetition.

副词:

People’s behaviors inevitably/inescapably reflects their nature.

Similarly, it becomes difficult for students to know which job best fits themafter graduation due to their lack of real-life experience.

词组和短语:

In other words, that is to say, which meansthat, meaning that, to explain/specify

In general/generally/generally speaking, inbrief/briefly, in essence/essentially, above all, needless to say

Without doubt/undoubtedly, to a largedegree/extent, in most cases | in some cases, most likely/it is likely that,most probably/it is probable that/it seems that | in few cases | under nocircumstances/situations

Advertisers attempt to leave a better impression on the potential buyers byemphasizing the first-class quality of the products.

Most of animal extinction today can be attributed to habitat destruction.

Younger people are loaded with heavy burdens from work, but this should never bean excuse to ignore potential health problems.

Educational video games make students moreacademically-motivated instead of distractingthem from their classes.

Renewable energy resources are widely used in response to the environmentalists’concerns.

The government ought to spare no effort to raise the generaleducation level of our country.

Learning the stories of past scientists andtheir achievements could help one strivefor greater personal accomplishments.
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