A Pronunciation Guide
for the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols vi
Early America 3
By 12,000 years ago, humans lived throughout much
of what is now the Americas.
Colonial Period 9
By 1690, 250,000 people lived in the New World.
By 1790, there were 2.5 million people.
The Road to Independence 13
The ideas of liberalism and democracy are the basis
of the U.S. political system.
The American Revolution and the war for independence
from Britain began with a small fight between British troops
and colonists on April 19, 1775.
Forming a National Government 23
In 1783, the 13 colonies became the United States.
Early Years, Westward Expansion, and Regional Differences 29
George Washington became the first president of the
United States on April 30, 1789.
Conflict within the United States 33
In 1850, the United States was a large country, full
Civil War and Post-War Reconstruction 37
The American Civil War started in April 1861.
Growth and Transformation 43
The United States changed after the Civil War.
Discontent and Reform 49
By 1900, the United States had seen growth, civil war,
economic prosperity, ane economic hard times.
World War I, 1920s Prosperity, and the Great Depression 53
In 1914, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey fought
Britain, France, Italy, and Russia.
The New Deal and World War II 57
President Roosevelt believed that democracy had
failed in other countries because of unemployment
The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam 63
After World War II, the United States and Great Britain
had long-term disagreements with the Soviet Union over
the future of Europe, most of which had been freed from
Nazi rule by their joint effort.
Cultural Change 1950–1980 67
At home, some Americans began to have easier lives.
End of the 20th Century 73
The United States always has been a place where
different ideas and views compete to influence law
and social change.
The United States has dramatically changed from its
beginnings as 13 little-known colonies.